KL-Advanced Oxi-Plus
(AOP)
LAYER FARM
Water Treatment Data

Introduction

Poor water quality will counter the best nutritional programs resulting in below average feed conversions, weight gains and egg production. Good water quality will complement nutrition programs.

Water, whether ground, surface or municipal, is commonly polluted and laden with solids in suspension or in solution: clay particles, vegetable waste (organic mater), living organisms (plankton,  bacteria, parasites, viruses), various salts (chlorides, sulfates, sodium, or calcium carbonates, iron, manganese, etc), organic matter (humic and fulvic acids, petroleum by-products, pesticides,  fertilizers, manufacturing residues….), and gases (methane, hydrogen sulfide……). Because of the large number of impurities, water must be treated before use in order to make it suitable for its INTENDED APPLICATION e.g. to be of health and metabolic benefit to poultry.

A specific treatment must be carefully designed to insure that the “Intended result” is obtained. To understand “intended result” one must understand 1. The effects of the selected treatment on final water quality, 2. The limitations of the selected treatment, and 3. The impact of all residuals/residues on the metabolic processes of poultry. In other words, the success of the intended water treatment is dependent on the selected program to manage inorganics, pathogens and organics in such a fashion that all residues have either a neutral or health benefit to poultry.

Water is 60% of the diet for poultry. Water represents 70% of total body weight. Water is the key transport medium for all metabolic processes. As an example: digestion and absorption require water to maintain fluidity of the lumen contents, to serve as a medium for bringing digestive enzymes into contact with food particles, and to allow the diffusion of digested nutrients to epithelial cells, where absorption occurs. In the case of this example, if there is anything carried by ingested water, either inorganic, microorganisms and/or inorganic matter, that blocks, interferes or competes with the digestive process, then the performance of the animal is less than optimum.

This report covers a pilot project of the application of KL-AOP to treat well water fed to a layer farm in Texas.

I. Layer House “F”

House Description:

    1. Each house is constructed with 4 isles. Each isle caged approximately 17,500 birds.
    2. Each isle is constructed of two columns of staggered cages, three cages high.
    3. Each row has an independent egg collection belt and egg counter.
    4. Light source is from six inch florescent bulbs, hanging approximately 7 feet above the floor and 10 feet apart, strung the length of each isle.
    5. Illumination exposure is approximately 3 lumens for the top row and 1 lumen for the bottom row. Duration of exposure is on a graduated scale, i.e. mid Jan. The bird were receiving 15 hours of light, scheduled to be increased to 17 hours.

Treatment Setup:

    1. KL-AOP water treatment injection system was installed 15 Oct., after the house sand filter, before cartridge filtration, and isolated for the water lines feeding isles I & II, i.e. the “South” half of the house.
    2. Species of bird: BABCOCK
    3. At 16 weeks of age the layers were placed in house “F” ( Oct 22,).
      1. A water treatment system was installed in Pullet house “7″, and the treated pullets were carried through to the South half of the layer house.
    4. The division of the population was approximately: 34,632 to the South half, and 34,631 to the North half on layer House “F”.
    5. The injection rate of KL-AOP was adjusted to provide an ORP reading of +600 +/- 20 immediately after cartridge filtration and in approximately six weeks an ORP of 600 +/- 20 was observed at the end of both isles I & II (South half of the house).
    6. The pH of the well water is 7.65. The pH at the end of the treated isles is 7.3. The well water has a bicarbonate concentration of approximately 400 ppm which made the installation of acid/vinegar pH adjustment equipment impractical for the purposes of this project. (Using natural vinegar would require a ratio of 1ml vinegar to 1 liter water to drop the pH to 6.5).
    7. KL-AOP Treatment was disconnected Jul 31.

 

Performance

  1. Egg Production & % Deviation : Percent difference between the two halves of the house by month percent difference in egg production of South vs North.

Total Eggs Counted:

MonthTreated South*No. Hens End of Mo.Untreated NorthNo. Hens End of Mo.% Deviation Egg Prod
Oct.13457334571
Nov.427,03334482423,723344760.78
Dec.1,006,83034137979,526341832.79
Jan.2964,16933762946,656338411.85
Feb.3891,26233396869,529335262.5
Mar.4912,02933172898,46633326**1.51
Apr.5850,46932901829,113330762.59
May6927,60332558901,491327262.9
Jun.858,21632299842,85732445**1.82
Jul.828,95832010810,886321602.23
Total7,666,5697,502,247318482.19
Aug.7756,06831711751,002318480.67

* No. of Hens may have an error of +/- 0.25%
** Water treatment was turned off for two weeks

    1. Oct 22, : Hens were started with a 19.24% protein diet
    2. Jan 17: Diet changed to 18.97 % protein (Peaking 19)
    3. Feb 17: Diet changed to 17.2 % protein (Peaking 20)
    4. Mar 5 : Diet changed to 16.5 % protein (Peaking 21)
    5. Apr 2 : Diet changed to 17.07 % protein ( Std “A” formulation)
    6. May 21 : Diet changed to 16.5 % protein (21-B formula)
    7. KL-AOP Treatment discontinued: Jul 31

 

  1. Hen Performance
    1. “Eggs per Hen” : (Month egg production) / (average No of Hens)
    2. “% Hen Day Egg Production”:[(30 day egg production) / (Hen Days) * 100]

Eggs per Hen per Month                                                                                                      % Hen Day (30 day cycle)

MonthTreatedUntreatedTreatedUntreated
Dec28.43457394.6692.04
Jan28.43448294.6792.78
Feb27.53413791.5389.02
Mar26.523376288.486.7
Apr25.743339685.883.2
May25.663317285.5682.72
Jun26.473290188.2286.22
Jul25.023255883.481.2
Aug122.993229976.6675.79

1. KL-AOP Treatment: Disconnected Jul 31.

Mortality:

  1. On or about Jan. 16 it was noted that the hens had enlarged livers and kidneys. Autopsy report, as of May 13, was not available.

 

II. Layer House “A”: Second Cycle Hens

House Description:

  1. Each house is constructed with 4 isles. Each isle will cage approximately 17,500 birds.
  2. Each isle is constructed of two columns of staggered cages, three cages high.
  3. Each row has an independent egg collection belt and egg counter.
  4. Light source is from six inch florescent bulbs, hanging approximately 7 feet above the floor and 10 feet apart, strung the length of each isle.
  5. Illumination exposure is approximately 3 lumens for the top row and 1 lumen for the bottom row. Duration of exposure is on a graduated scale, i.e. mid Jan. The Hens are receiving 17 hours of light.

Treatment Setup:

  1. KL-AOP water treatment injection system was installed Feb. 17, after the house sand filter, before cartridge filtration, and isolated for the water lines feeding isles III & IV, i.e. the “North” half of the house.
  2. Species of bird: HYLINE
  3. These Hens were brought out of molt at the end of Nov. and egg production data commenced Dec. 6.
  4. The division of the population was approximately: 33,343 to the South half, and 33,342 to the North half on layer House “F”.
  5. The injection rate of KL-AOP was adjusted to provide an ORP reading of +600 +/- 20 immediately after cartridge filtration and in approximately six weeks an ORP of +600 +/- 20 was observed at the end of both isles III & IV (North half of the house).
  6. The pH of the well water is 7.65. The pH at the end of the treated isles is 7.3. The well water has a bicarbonate concentration of approximately 400 ppm which made the installation of acid/vinegar pH adjustment equipment impractical for the purposes of this project. (Using natural vinegar would require a ratio of 1ml vinegar to 1 liter water to drop the pH to 6.5)
  7. These Hens have no prior exposure to KL-AOP treated water. The purpose of this project is for the gross evaluation of the impact of KL-AOP on late in their productive life.
  8. KL-AOP treatment was disconnected Jul 31.

Performance

  1. Egg Production & “% Deviation” : Percent difference between the two halves of the house by month percent difference in egg production of North vs South.

*Total Eggs Counted:

MonthUntreated SouthNo. Hens End of Mo.Treated NorthNo. Hens End of Mo.% Deviation Egg Prod.
Nov.3334333342
Dec.1621,44833264651,712332644.87
Jan.788,46033182804,197331822.0
Feb.**762,40933085761,94833085-0.06
Mar.2803,91832961809,390329610.68
Apr.3738,24532813742,962328130.64
May749,55832710755,719327110.82
Jun4731,42832539743,878325401.70
Jul5712,25832307716,137323090.55
Total5,907,7245,985,940
Total As of Feb. 154,116,6114,149.0600.79

* Mortality is recorded as a cumulative number, Hen counts assume even distribution of mortality.
** KL-AOP treatment was installed Feb. 17

    1. Dec 1,: Diet given : 15% protein diet, 1280 Kcal (Purina “120″)
    2. Mar 4: Diet changed to 14.6 % protein, 1295 Kcal (Purina “115″)
    3. Apr 3: Diet changed to 14.6 % protein, 1325 Kcal (Purina “115″)
    4. Jun 18: Diet changed to 15.0% protein, 1320 Kcal (Purina “120″)
    5. Second Molt: Aug 2

 

  1. Hen Performance
    1. “Eggs per Hen” : (Month egg production) / (average No of Hens)
    2. “% Hen Day Egg Production”:[(30 day egg production) / (Hen Days) * 100]

Eggs per Hen per Month                                                                                                      % Hen Day (30 day cycle)

MonthTreatedUntreatedTreatedUntreated
Feb22.9923.0179.3079.34
Mar24.5124.3379.0678.53
Apr.22.5922.4574.4173.80
May22.3122.1374.5373.80
Jun22.8022.4276.0074.73
Jul21.4621.3571.5571.17
AugMoltMoltMoltMolt

 

South versus North Percent Deviation
The question addressed here is: Does the southern exposure to the sun give the south half of the hen house an advantage in egg production over the north half ? The percentages noted were calculated to indicate the percent monthly egg production difference of the South two isles over the North two isles.

Houses B, C, D, and E are not exposed to any treated water.

MonthB-%C-%D-%E-%TOTAL
Eggs:No.
TOTAL
Eggs:So.
Ave-%
Deviation
Dec.1.750.750.690.323409805343878440.85
Jan1.801.090.80-0.44335839333834850.75
Feb1.890.011.290.02308668931116910.81
Mar.0.390.410.05-0.19327889832837740.15
Apr.-0.92
Molt
Apr-04
-0.11
Molt
Apr-14
0.54
Molt
Apr-04
0.34156507615668100.11
May-2.66
Off Molt
May-09
5.39
Off Molt
May-15
10.17
Off Molt
May-09
2.92186837918080053.34
Jun0.361.37-0.220.99319013232099160.62
Jul1.650.61-0.49-0.46331965733096010.30
Aug1.780.84-0.37-0.31306928730553860.45
Ave1.030.840.760.3726.25226.0620.73

 

Comparison of Egg Production Deviation between untreated houses and treated

NOTE: The North half of House “A” is the treated half. Since the deviation is comparing South versus North the negative number indicates that the north half is producing more than the South half.

MonthB – E %F %A %
Dec.0.852.79
Jan.0.751.85
Feb0.812.50.06
Mar.0.15*1.51-0.68
Apr.0.112.59-0.64
May**3.342.9-0.82
Jun0.62*1.82-1.70
Jul0.302.23-0.55
Cumulative Ave.0.772.19-0.84
Aug0.450.67Molt

* Water treatment was turned off for two weeks
** Three houses came off molt.

  1. KL-AOP treatment for Houses F & A: Disconnected Jul 31

Secondary observations :

  1. The plumbing of all treated water lines are clean of biofilm.
  2. The drinking cups receiving the KL-AOP treated water are all free of any biologic growth.
  3. The water collected at the furthest point from the point of KL-AOP injection, tested for bacteria, was found with “No-Growth”.
  4. The water chemistry of the KL-AOP treated water is evidentiary of the treated waters’ ability to remove and prevent scale buildup on the cooling screens.

 

II. Layer House “4”

House Description:

  1. This house is constructed with 5 isles. Each isle will cage approximately 17,500 birds.
  2. Each isle is constructed of two columns of staggered cages, three cages high.
  3. Each row has an independent egg collection belt and egg counter.
  4. Light source is from six inch florescent bulbs, hanging approximately 7 feet above the floor and 10 feet apart, strung the length of each isle.
  5. Illumination exposure is approximately 3 lumens for the top row and 1 lumen for the bottom row. Duration of exposure is on a graduated scale, commencing 20 April 1996. The bird were receiving 15 hours of light, scheduled to be increased to 17 hours.

Treatment Setup:

  1. KL-AOP  water treatment injection system was installed 23 April, after the house sand filter, before cartridge filtration, and isolated for the water lines feeding isles IV & V, i.e. the  “North” two isles half of the house.
  2. An Ion filter, consisting of a sand/ granular activated carbon (GAC) filter and a copper cathode, which dissolves adding 0.5 ppm copper to the water, was installed 22 April , and isolated for the water lines feeding isles I & II, after the house sand filter, before cartridge filtration.
  3. The middle isle, isle III was isolated and receives only sand filtered water.
  4. Species of bird: DEKALB
  5. At 16 weeks of age the layers were placed in house “4” ( May 20). These hens did not have any prior exposure to any water treatment chemistry.
  6. The division of the population was approximately: 12702 hens to each of the five isles
  7. The injection rate of KL-AOP was adjusted to provide an ORP reading of +600 +/- 20 immediately after cartridge filtration and in approximately six weeks an ORP of +600 +/- 20 was observed at the end of both isles IV & V.
  8. The pH of the well water is 7.65. The pH at the end of the treated isles is 7.3. The well water has a bicarbonate concentration of approximately 400 ppm which made the installation of acid/vinegar pH adjustment equipment impractical for the purposes of this project. (Using natural vinegar would require a ratio of 1ml vinegar to 1 liter water to drop the pH to 6.5)
  9. KL-AOP treatment was disconnected Jul 31.

 

  1. Performance

*Total Eggs Counted:

MonthIsle I
Cu Tmt
Isle II
Cu Tmt
Isle III
Control
Isle IV
KL-AOP
Isle V
KL-AOP
May1149,098143,089139,344140,150150,179
Jun296,767285,140286,459293,075301,031
Jul2337,393327,488328,368333,551340,494
Aug305,113296,186303,1853302,6973308,018
  1. Diet : 18.5 % protein, 1315 Kcal
  2. Diet Change: Jul 9: 16.4 % protein, 1280 Kcal (135 Egg Weight Plus)
  3. KL-AOP Treatment discontinued : Jul 31

 

*Hen Count (End of Month)

MonthIsle IIsle IIIsle IIIIsle IVIsle V
Begin Pop1270212702127021270212702
May1264112642126421264212642
Jun1259512596125961259712597
Jul1256312564125641256512565
Aug1252112521125231252312523

* Individual Isle mortality counts are not maintained, these numbers assume an even distribution of mortality.

 

  1. % Deviation : Percent difference in egg production between the KL-AOP treated hens versus the copper treated hens and the KL-AOP treated hens versus the control group (untreated hens).
MonthKL-AOP  vs Cu TmtKL-AOP  vs Control
May-0.644.18
Jun2.13.72
Jul1.42.64
Aug11.570.72
  1. KL-AOP Treatment: Disconnected Jul 31

 

  1. Hen Performance
    1. “Eggs per Hen” : (Month egg production) / (average No of Hens)
    2. “% Hen Day Egg Production”:[(30 day egg production) / (Hen Days) * 100]

                                               EGGS per HEN                                             % HEN DAY (30 day cycle)

MonthKL-AOPCu Tmt ControlKL-AOP Cu TmtControl
 May 11.46 11.531138.19 38.4336.65
Jun 23.54 23.0622.7078.4676.8675.67
Jul 25.96 25.6225.386.54 85.4084.33
Aug1 23.6323.2423.578.7577.4678.32
  1. KL-AOP Treatment: Disconnected Jul 31